The Logos Bible Software Blog surveys some of the various book-chapter-verse schemes for the Bible that have cropped up throughout history.
(You’ll occasionally see a note in the ESV—in Exodus 22:1 for example—that indicates a different chapter/verse numbering system.)
Of course, they bring up it to announce that they’ve solved the problem: they’ve created a complete mapping between all the various verse systems, resulting in nearly 57 megabytes of XML data. They plan to use the data in the next version of their software to allow for a “higher degree of precision when it comes to Bible navigation, comparing Bible versions and viewing them in parallel, and Bible reference tagging.” The amount of effort put into this project boggles the mind.
If this kind of textual history interests you, check out Ben C. Smith’s Canonical Lists, which describe in detail the attempts of the early church (and early church heretics) to assemble the New Testament canon. He just made it to Athanasius of Alexandria, who assembled all 27 books in the New Testament as we know it today, though not in the same order.